Information About Diegueno
Diegueño, also called San Diegueño , The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, Kamia a group of Yuman-speaking North American Indians who originally inhabited large areas extending on both sides of what is now the U.S.–Mexican border in California and Baja California. They were named after the mission of San Diego.
Traditional Diegueño culture reflected similarities with its neighbours the Luiseño to the north and other Yuman nations to the east, such as the Mojave (see Yuman). Their social organization was based upon lineage, with each lineage apparently associated with a particular location. The lineage chief led ceremonies.
Evidence of human settlement in Kumeyaay territory goes back at least 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition.The Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples.
Historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 CE; however, others say that Kumeyaay people have lived in San Diego for 12,000 years. At the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal, clans.
Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive weeds, and domestic animals, which causes dramatic changes to the local environment. Under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. After Mexico took over the lands from Spain, they secularized the missions in 1834, and Ipai and Tipais lost their lands and essentially became serfs.
From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized the best farming and grazing lands. In 1875, President Ulysses Grant created reservations in the area, and additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians. The reservations tended to be small and lack adequate water supplies.
Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural wage labor; however, 20-year drought in the mid-20 century crippled the region’s dry farming economy. For their common welfare, several reservations formed the non-profit Kumeyaay, Inc.
- Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation
- Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California:
- Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians
- Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Inaja and Cosmit Reservation
- Jamul Indian Village of California
- La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation
- Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Manzanita Reservation
- Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Mesa Grande Reservation
- San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California
- Santa Ysabel Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Santa Ysabel Reservation
- Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation
They live on five communities in Baja California, including:
- Juntas de Neji
- La Huerta
- San Antonio Necua
- Santa Catarina
- San José de la Zorra.